Design of CMOS integrated germanium photodiodes

A CMOS processing compatible germanium on silicon integrated waveguide photodiode. Positioning contacts in predicted low optical field regions, establishing side trenches in the silicon layer along the length of the photodiode reduces optical losses. Novel taper dimensions are selected based on the desirability of expected operational modes, reducing optical losses when light is injected from the silicon layer to the germanium layer. Reduced vertical mismatch systems have improved coupling between waveguide and photodiode. Light is coupled into and/or out of a novel silicon ring resonator and integrated waveguide photodiode system with reduced optical losses by careful design of the geometry of the optical path. An integrated waveguide photodiode with a reflector enables transmitted light to reflect back through the integrated waveguide photodiode, improving sensitivity. Careful selection of the dimensions of a novel integrated waveguide microdisk photodiode system results in reduced scattering. Improved sensitivity integrated waveguide photodiodes comprise integrated heaters.
J. Witzens, G. Masini, G. Capellini, C. Gunn, Design of CMOS integrated Germanium photodiodes, US patent filed Apr. 2006.