Integrated microtoroids monolithically coupled with integrated waveguides







A photonic apparatus comprises an integrated waveguide, an integrated resonator in the form of a microtoroid and a thermally reflowable film. The reflowable film comprises a first film area and a second film area. The reflowable film is one of a thin film and a stack of thin films. The first film area is thermally reflown, the microtoroid is formed in the thermally reflown first film area. The second film area is not reflown in the immediate vicinity of the microtoroid. The microtoroid is optically coupled to the integrated waveguide located on or located within one of or both of the first or second film areas. The first and second film areas are directly connected to each other. The microtoroid has an edge extending along a circumference. The microtoroid can be a non-inverted or an inverted microtoroid, wherein the second film area is inside or outside of the circumference.