Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with in-plane waveguides

Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting...

Simulated field profile in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser monolithically coupled to an on-chip waveguide via a resonant grating coupler and scanning electron microscope image of the device.

Abstract:
The ability to couple light from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser into a planar, on-chip waveguide creates new opportunities for achieving higher levels of integration and functionality. Here we propose to use a strong grating etched into a waveguide defined into the top layer of the epitaxially grown structure, so that epitaxial regrowth is not required. By introducing a defect mode into the cavity we were able to achieve a 40% coupling efficiency even though light is coupled through a ninety degrees bend. We also show that polarization control of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is enhanced by coupling to the defect mode. Calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain method.
J. Witzens, G. Pickrell, D. Louderback, P. Guilfoyle, and A. Scherer, Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with in-plane waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).