Electronic and Optical Measurement Technologies (Summer Semesters)

The fundamental principles and the functionalities and non-idealities of essential electronic building blocks for the measurement of electrical quantities will be explained, as well as their application to the measurement of ultra-small and ultra-fast signals illustrated with concrete systems. Optical measurement techniques relying on similar principles implemented in the optical domain will also be introduced, in particular in the context of extending the limitations of purely electrical systems.

Numerical examples will be based on Simulink and demonstrated during the exercise sessions.

In particular, following topics will be covered:

Basics of electrical measurement techniques:

• Noise in electrical amplifiers (Johnson-Nyquist noise, operational amplifiers, lock-in amplifiers, 50Ω systems and noise figure).
• Digitalization (A/D and D/A converters, reference currents, temperature sensors).
• Impedance measurements (semiconductor parameter analyzers, 4-point probes, Hall measurements, measurement of inductance and capacity, parasitic inductance of wires, shielding).
• High-speed receivers, jitter and bit error rate measurements (RF-receivers, optical receivers, real time and sampling oscilloscopes, noise, cyclic and data dependent interference).
• Frequency and real-time measurements (frequency references, phase locked loops, clock data recovery, phase noise, S- and X- parameter measurements, spectrally resolved measurements, time-domain reflectometry).

Optical measurement techniques and RF photonics:

• Analog optical links
• Fiber sensors
• LIDAR systems (Light detection and Ranging)
• Optical Coherence Tomography
• Time resolved measurements with atto-second lasers
• Optical phase locked loops and optical phase noise reduction
• Electro-optic oscillators
• Arbitrary pulse shape generation, optical A/D converters
• Optical frequency conversion and rectification